The efforts to protect human rights by means of international law are no less than revolutionary. They have turned states' insides out in an almost literal sense: The ways in which states treat their own nationals used to be the very core of "domestic jurisdiction" in which no foreign state or international organization was allowed to intervene. But over the last 50 years or so the relationship between governments and the people under their authority has turned into a subject of international (also:legal) concern, ranging from laying down human rights obligations in treaties, the discussion of human rights matters in international bodies and conferences, public censure and condemnation, the international "mobilization of shame," to judgments of human rights courts and sanctions against persistent violators. This development has had a profound impact not only on international politics but also on general international law - a body of principles, rules and procedures traditionally developed to cope with tasks and challenges arising at the level of inter-state (inter-sovereign) relations. The compact Course will analyse in depth the ways in which this development has manifested itself - and the difficulties to which it has led - in the most important fields of international law: its sources, particularly the law of treaties, state responsibility, jurisdictional immunities of states, and the activities of international courts and tribunals.