This course will provide an introduction to international criminal law as administered by international criminal tribunals. It will combine a black-letter approach to some of the most important tribunal case law with theoretical, historical, and policy-oriented readings addressing the role of the tribunals in achieving the objectives of transitional justice. The course will include a historical overview and analysis of the goals, jurisdictional bases, and structures of the various international criminal tribunals, from Nuremberg and Tokyo to the permanent International Criminal Court. It will also focus on substantive international criminal law, including the elements of international crimes (including war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, and the crime of aggression). Third, the course will explore some challenging areas of jurisprudence, including related to sexual violence in armed conflict, gender-based persecution and destruction of cultural heritage or property. Finally, students will assess the effectiveness of the tribunals in contributing to retributive justice, deterrence, peace and reconciliation, victims’ well-being and reparation, and the rule of law, and will consider questions about the future of international criminal justice, including strategic dilemmas facing the International Criminal Court as well as alternative or complementary approaches to accountability.